samtidig at skræmme faste brugere væk

Jævnfør Qvortrups pointe (kapitel 2) om at begrundelsen for at anvende it ikke skal styres af, hvad man kan og bør gøre med it, men i stedet at lade fænomenerne uden for it forme anvendelsen, hvilket i denne relation vil sige at anvende it til at udvikle kvaliteten af museumsbesøget ved at facilitere behovstilpassede læringsoplevelser og målrette kommunikationen efter forskellige typer af brugere. Jeg vil i det følgende uddybe resultaterne af de danske museers web-brugerundersøgelse og herefter kaste et blik på to nyere og internationalt anerkendte teorier om webbrugere i al almindelighed – den såkaldte Net Generation eller The Digital Natives – og om hvilke motivationer, der driver disses deltagelse i kommunikation og læring på webbet. 5.3 MUSEERNES WEBBRUGERE I september 2010 udkom den første danske undersøgelse af museernes webbrugere, og af den fremgår det, hvem der bruger museernes hjemmesider hvor meget og hvorfor. Som det bliver påpeget af Kulturarvsstyrelsens kontorchef Ole Winther, peger resultaterne på, at museernes største udfordring lige nu er at fastholde de kernebrugere, der ikke ønsker dialog via hjemmesider, og samtidig få den store gruppe i tale, som benytter internettet mere og mere: “Det er tankevækkende. Vi har en gruppe, som er uenige i, at museernes hjemmesider skal være sociale medier, og som er meget konservative i deres brug af hjemmesiden. På den anden side er danskerne den befolkning, hvor flest har en profil på Facebook, og hvor brugen af nettet til private som arbejdsrelaterede opgaver bliver mere og mere udbredt. Det kunne tyde på, at museernes web-strategier går ud på at forny sig uden samtidig at skræmme faste brugere væk.” 23 Helt konkret er undersøgelsen baseret dels på en kvantitativ elektronisk spørgeskemaundersøgelse af et repræsentativt udvalg af danske borgere (ud fra parametrene køn, alder, uddannelse og region) og 23 http://www.kulturarv.dk/presse-nyt/nyhed/artikel/museernes-hjemmesider-til-eftersyn/ Den digitale generation på museum 50 dels på kvalitative fokusgruppe-interviews med 33 udvalgte respondenter fra den kvantitative undersøgelse. På baggrund af den kvantitative undersøgelse bliver der opridset fire brugertyper: Museums- og webbrugere: borgere, der benytter både museum og web (31 %). Brugerne tilhører primært de moderne fællesskabsorienterede og de fællesskabsorienterede. Museumsbrugere: borgere, der har benyttet museer mindst én gang om året, men som ikke har brugt en museumshjemmeside inden for det sidste år (39 %).

Brugerne er de tidligere nævnte fire segmenter, der er overrepræsenterede i museerne. Webbrugere: borgere, der bruger museer mindre end én gang om året, men som har benyttet en museumshjemmeside inden for det sidste år (3 %). Webbrugerne tilhører primært segmenterne centergruppen, de moderne fællesskabsorienterede, de traditionelle fællesskabsorienterede Ikke-brugere: borgere, der hverken har benyttet museer eller museumshjemmesider inden for det sidste år (27 %) (Kulturarvsstyrelsen, 2010, p.8). Webbrugerne udgør 3 % af deltagerne i undersøgelsen, og da dette antal er for lille til, at brugertypen kan undersøges særskilt, har man valgt at udelade denne gruppe fra den resterende del af rapporten. Dog pointeres det, at det ifølge international forskning er en interessant brugertype, fordi den er voksende, og fordi den rummer de borgere, der kun tilegner sig viden gennem digitale medier. Netop derfor bør museerne også tage højde for gruppen i deres digitale kommunikation og formidling. Ifølge Danmarks Statistiks tal for danskernes it-vaner fremgår det tydeligt, at danskerne er klar til at bruge de digitale mediers muligheder fuldt ud (Kulturarvsstyrelsen, 2010, p.8). Webbrugerundersøgelsen skal ses i sammenhæng med den nationale brugerundersøgelse af museernes fysiske brugere og begge undersøgelser anvender Gallups segmenteringsværktøj ”GallupKompas”. Sammenligner man webbrugerne med brugerundersøgelsen fra de fysiske museer, afviger de demografiske fakta ikke meget; også her udgøres webbrugerne hovedsaligt af kvinder (54 %) og relativt få er unge mellem 15-29 år (17 %). I forhold til segmentfordelingen er der altså også blandt webbrugerne markant flere moderne fællesskabsorienterede og fællesskabsorienterede borgere og færre af de traditionelle og de traditionelle individorienterede. Ikke-brugerne er primært mellem 30-49 år (43 %) eller unge mellem 15-29 år (24 %) og ældre mellem 50-64 år (22 %) (Kulturarvsstyrelsen, 2010, p.20). Ikke-brugerne og museumsbrugerne (der ikke bruger hjemmesiderne) udgør sammen 66 %, hvilket betyder, at kun en tredjedel af respondenterne bruger museernes hjemmesider. Af disse er det segmenterne de moderne fællesskabsorienterede og centergruppen, der hyppigst bruger museernes hjemmesider. 5.3.1 HVILKE KRAV HAR WEBBRUGERNE TIL MUSEERNES HJEMMESIDER? Den digitale generation på museum 51 Den primære årsag til at brugerne benytter museernes hjemmesider, er at forberede et besøg på det fysiske museum (80 %). Herudover benytter over halvdelen af brugerne hjemmesiderne til at søge information om museets genstande, samlinger eller udstillinger (62 %) eller museets aktiviteter (54 %). 52 % af webbrugerne mener, at museernes hjemmesider skal være en læringsressource. Og under 1 % af hjemmesidebrugerne deltager i online sociale netværk på museernes hjemmesider.

I relation hertil bruger 36 % af alle respondenterne sociale medier som Facebook og Twitter hver dag eller næsten hver dag. Andelen af respondenter, som bruger sociale medier til daglig, er højest blandt dem, der hverken bruger museer eller museernes hjemmesider (39 %) (Op.cit. p.12). Sammenligner man disse statistiske informationer med Werner Schweibenz typografi over museumshjemmesider, kan webbrugernes årsager til at benytte museernes hjemmesider karakteriseres således Brochuremuseet er den primære anvendelsesform, idet det største antal brugere (80 %) benytter hjemmesiderne til at forberede et fysisk besøg Genstandsmuseet, hvor webbrugerne søger information om museets genstande og aktiviteter, er den næststørste anvendelsesform Det lærende museum fremgår ikke som en egentlig svarmulighed i undersøgelsen. Der er således ikke spurgt til “at lære noget nyt” som en årsag til, hvorfor brugerne benytter museernes hjemmesider. Der er dog spurgt til årsager som “at blive underholdt”, hvilket 4 % angiver som årsag til, hvorfor de bruger hjemmesiderne, mens 2 % angiver “at deltage i konkurrencer og spil” som årsag. Ifølge 52 % af webbrugerne bør museernes hjemmesider dog være en læringsressource. Det virtuelle museum, som tilbyder noget andet end det fysiske museum, er heller ikke en fremtrædende anvendelsesform; under 1 % deltager i online sociale netværk, 2 % deltager i spil og konkurrencer, og 4 % benytter museernes hjemmesider for at blive underholdt (Op.cit. p.29). Webbrugerne har dog en række krav til, hvordan museernes hjemmesider ideelt set bør være. En museumshjemmeside bør således indeholde to niveauer, hvoraf den ene er praktisk med faktuel information om priser, åbningstider, aktiviteter osv. (brochuremuseet).

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