sammenhæng give nye muligheder for en styrket

Den digitale kultur kan i denne sammenhæng give nye muligheder for en styrket kommunikation ikke bare til de eksisterende brugere men også til flere potentielt interesserede brugere. Informations- og kommunikationsteknologierne giver museerne mulighed for at udvide deres fysiske rum, men udfordrer samtidig den traditionelle viden om brugerne – for hvem er de digitale brugere og hvilke krav stiller disse til museumsoplevelserne? Derudover er IKT med til at udfordre de traditionelle forhold mellem afsender, indhold og modtagere, fordi de digitale kommunikationsformer i høj grad er styrede af interaktion og brugerinddragelse. Jeg vil i næste kapitel give en grundig teoretisk udfoldelse af de mest centrale kommunikationsteorier, som vil kunne bruges som et konkret fundament til at udvikle kommunikationsstrategier og museumsoplevelser ud fra. 4. KOMMUNIKATIONSTEORIER Dette kapitel vedrører kommunikationsprocesser på et teoretisk mikroniveau og gennem konkrete manifestationer på et større samfundsmæssigt og museologisk makroniveau.

Jeg introducerer en række grundbegreber, der vil blive knyttet til at beskrive kommunikationsformer, som foregår ved anvendelse af IKT. Begreberne vil dels blive brugt til at illustrere to karakteristiske Web 2.0 kommunikationsmønstre og dels blive konkretiseret i mine løsningsforslag. 4.1 HVAD ER KOMMUNIKATION? Etableringen af kommunikation som videnskabelig disciplin opstod i årene efter 2. Verdenskrig, hvor især ingeniørerne Claude E. Shannon og Warren Weavers kommunikationsmodel fra 1949 bredt accepteres som kimen til den videre forskning inden for feltet (Fiske, J. 1982, p.6; Askehave, I. & Norlyk, B. 2006, p.34). Denne model har været genstand for megen refleksion og har dannet afsæt for videreudviklingen af kommunikationsfeltet som et mangefacetteret og multidisciplinært område, hvilket et omfangsrigt antal kommunikationsmodeller illustrerer. Shannon og Weavers kommunikationsmodel har eksempelvis inspireret en række humanistiske discipliner som sociologi, psykologi, filosofi og lingvistik til at formulere deres forskning i modelform, og disse discipliner har så ligeledes sat deres aftryk i kommunikationsforskningen. (McQuail, D. & Windahl, S., 1982, p.7; Askehave, I. & Norlyk, B. 2006, p.34). Kommunikation som videnskabelig disciplin kan derfor ses som en integration af teorier Den digitale generation på museum 28 fra forskellige forskningsområder, der tilsammen har givet kommunikationsforskningen en bred identitet (Schulz, P. J. 2010, p.xxii). Kommunikation er en grundlæggende menneskelig aktivitet, som kan være svær at definere entydigt; al vores kommunikation er medieret gennem eksempelvis sprog, gestik, tekst, billeder, telefon, tv, radio, computer, samt artefakter som for eksempel tøj, skilte, signaler, koder, lyde osv. Det særlige ved Shannon og Weavers model er, at den ved hjælp af en simpel grafisk form anskueliggør kommunikation som en systematisk og effektiv proces, og netop derfor har den haft en bred appel gennem tiden – eksempelvis inden for massekommunikation (radio og TV), markedskommunikation, politisk kommunikation og kommunikation i kommercielle sammenhænge (underholdning, reklame og Public Relations), hvor det har været en fordel at kunne effektivisere og ”styre” kommunikationen (McQuail, D. & Windahl, S. 1982, p.7).

Begrebet kommunikation har en lang historie og har siden antikken i form af det latinske ord ”communicatio” været en betegnelse for meddelelse (ensidig eller gensidig), udveksling, omgang, fællesskab, overførsel (Gyldendals Fremmedordbog, 1983). Kommunikation er et komplekst forhold med mange variabler, alt efter hvilken vinkel kommunikationens kontekst, medie og aktører anskues ud fra. Netop derfor er der gennem tiden blevet udviklet en stor mængde kommunikationsmodeller – men der er ingen model, der passer på alle forhold. Dette forhold kommer til udtryk i den efterfølgende kritik, der har været af anvendelsen af Shannon og Weavers tekniske kommunikationsmodel i humanistiske sammenhænge. Modellen bygger ifølge Lars Qvortrup på en tvivlsom forudsætning; den forudsætter, at de to, der kommunikerer, lever i en fælles verden, hvor det, den ene part ser, også er det, den anden part ser. At vi skulle kunne kommunikere via et fælles kodesystem (ens forståelseshorisonter), er ifølge Qvortrup ikke muligt i et hyperkomplekst informationssamfund, idet den menneskelige kommunikation foregår ved hjælp af symboler, kulturelle koder og fortolkningsmønstre, som er forskellige fra afsender til modtager (Qvortrup, 2000, p.150). Shannon og Weavers kommunikationsforskning er blevet karakteriseret som en transmissions-tilgang til kommunikation på grund af behandlingen af information som en neutral og objektiv størrelse, der kan besiddes, transmitteres og modtages (Carey, J. W. 1988; McQuail, D. & Windahl, S. 1982; Askehave, I. & Norlyk, B. 2006). Over for den står den modsatte tilgang, nemlig kommunikation som interaktion, der, som ordet indikerer, favner en opfattelse af kommunikation som en gensidig relation mellem agerende (af det latinske agens = handlende) parter (Askehave, I. & Norlyk, B. 2006, p.38-41).

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